Wednesday, November 27, 2019
20 Definition Essay Topics Top Climate Change Issues to Discuss Writing a definition essay is a creative writing assignment which requires you to take a key concept from your studies and narrow down a single word which you can then define based on support from the text you are reviewing and other texts. That being said, from the topics below you will need to derive a single word which can be better defined with the topic, or vice versa. For example: if you take the first topic, you would want to better define what that is based on one word or define the concept of human impact on the environment within the context of a conventional conservation approach using key supportive data from reputable sources (to do this you can use our facts on the biocultural approach to the climate change). This can be a bit tricky which is why it is important for you to review your requirements and the topics carefully. The topics listed above are only meant as a guide and it can be difficult to review useful topics that can be used for a definition essay, since the definition essay itself is likely going to cover just one word. That being said, below is an example essay on one of the topics above. Conventional Approaches toward Conservation of the Environment and Considerations of Impacts of Humans Human Interaction with Nature rather than Separation from It Transformation of Natural Resources Climate Change Human Intervention Human Relationships with the Environment Ecological Health Sustainable Development Biocultural Diversity Cultural Diversity Biological Diversity Linguistic Diversity Cultural and Ecological Conservation Biocultural Trenches Core Areas Indigenous Knowledge Absence of Mutual Isolation Coevolution Inextricable Link Mutual Influences Definition Essay Sample: Biocultural Diversity Biocultural diversity refers to the diversity that links biology with culture. This takes the form of linking human culture to natural biology. While once thought to be two very separate ideas and in fact concepts harmful to each other and unable to live together, it has instead been found that these two ideas live now and flourish in tandem with one another. Historical and philosophical viewpoints toward humanity and nature have historically defined human impact as detrimental to the world of nature and something which has wrought dysfunction on the otherwise pristine and virgin natural environment which existed without human interference. This idea has made it challenging to define the relationship between nature and humans, as the only viable solutions presented were those which looked toward a non-human solution, a way of improving nature without humans. Historically studies have explored linguistic diversity as a single element as well as biological diversity as a single element . However, in each case the focus is on the single element and/or its impact on other cultural or natural elements, and not on one another. Now, a new definition exists which better encompasses newer ethnobiological findings. It was the International Society of Ethnobiology which declared in 1988 that there was a link between local and indigenous knowledge about plants, animals, habitats, ecological relations, functions, and low environmental impact that translated to sustainability of traditional forms for the use of natural resources. Humans have successfully maintained, as well as enhanced and in some cases even created biodiversity by way of the diverse cultural practices of managing otherwise Ã¢â¬Å"wildÃ¢â¬ resources and by the varied ways of raising domesticated animal species such as through animal husbandry, agroforestry, fire, and horticulture. Previous schools of thoughts defined biological diversity and cultural diversity as two very different things, one of which applied to humans while the other applied to nature. In addition to this, historical schools of thought believed that the impact of human culture was harmful to the diversity of the natural biology and as such, in order to restore natural biological diversity to its original pristine level, the impact and influence of human diversity and cultural diversity in particular had to be removed. However, this study was particularly important as a counter measure to that idea insofar as it found a link existing between the environment and humans, one which was interdependent and at a global level. That means that both humans and nature must be preserved together. Mapping of cultural diversity and biological diversity, cross compared offer independent support for the findings, which revealed a unique coincidence between the diversity among natural tropics and those countries which are culturally and linguistically diverse. The correlation suggests that higher levels of vertebrate species and higher languages are commonly correlated to areas where there exists a wider range of natural diversity among the local biology. The communication and transmission of cultural values, practices, and knowledge is done through communication, which highlights the important role played by language. This has resulted in the definition of the term Ã¢â¬Å"biocultural diversityÃ¢â¬ wherein both areas merge together to create one intrinsic relationship which is co-dependent and only able to thrive with the existence of both components. Biocultural diversity today is now better defined as the diversity of all areas of life including biological diversity, cultural diversity and linguistic diversity all three of which are shown to be interrelated and likely co-evolved together. This reflects upon a socio-ecological adaptive system which has formed thanks to the diversity of habitats, individual animal and plant species, and ecosystems in addition to the diversity of human culture and language. Biocultural diversity therefore is a term which reflects not just upon the variety and diversity found in all of these areas but in the way that these diversities exist in tandem with one another, interact with one another, and influence each other in complex fashions. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, there are links among these ranges of diversities which have developed through mutual adaptation. References Agnoletti, Mauro, and Ian D. Rotherham. Landscape And Biocultural Diversity.Ã Biodiversity and ConservationÃ 24.13 (2015): 3155-3165. Web. Carlson, Thomas J. S, and Luisa Maffi.Ã Ethnobotany And Conservation Of Biocultural Diversity. Bronx, N.Y.: New York Botanical Garden Press, 2004. Print. Claussen, E. CLIMATE POLICY: Enhanced: An Effective Approach To Climate Change.Ã Science306.5697 (2004): 816-816. Web. Maffi, Luisa.Ã On Biocultural Diversity. Washington [D.C.]: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. Print. Martinez-Reyes, Jose. Biocultural Diversity Conservation: A Global Sourcebook.Ã Ethnobiology LettersÃ 3.0 (2012): 61. Web. PFEIFFER, JEANINE M., and ROBERT A. VOEKS. Biological Invasions And Biocultural Diversity: Linking Ecological And Cultural Systems.Ã Envir. Conserv.Ã 35.04 (2008): 281. Web. Schmidt, Robert C. A Balanced-Efforts Approach For Climate Cooperation.Ã Nature Climate Change5.1 (2014): 10-12. Web.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Compulsive Eating essays Compulsive eating is an addiction to food. Being addicted to food is not like, gone all day without food fascination, it is not eating for pleasure it is eating out of compulsion (Moran, 2012). Over eating and being addicted to food is the exact same as if you were to drink, smoke, take drugs, etc. (Moran, 2012). The only difference is there is no cut off, nothing to stop taking because you cannot stop eating completely. There are several different types of compulsive eating disorders. Three main disorders are; binge eating, bulimia, and anorexia. These all are very similar in meaning because they all involve unhealthy eating patterns, but in reality differ greatly (New, 2011). We sometimes use food to hide our real emotions. We are too afraid to show how we are really feeling, so instead of talking about it, we eat. Compulsive eaters do this in such a way that it becomes an eating disorder. Though this is an extreme disorder that should be taken very seriously; it is not. People, who have compulsive eating disorders, eat for the same reasons people take drugs. But for some reason, that I do not quite understand, we seem to accept the idea of the drug-addicted rock star (Miet, 2012). Most people today tend to overlook compulsive eating because it has no actual cut off. No way to have any withdraws like you would if you were a drug addict or an alcoholic. Those who over eat do not see food as pleasure; they see it as compulsion (Moran, 2012). Those with compulsive eating disorders think of food as a way out. A way to satisfy depression, fill an empty void, or even a way to wallow in your own self-pity. In a sense, compulsive eating is the same as being an alcoholic, or a drug addict. But that is only the way it seems, there is still a huge difference. Compulsive eating allows you to still be able to wake up early in the morning, prepare lunches for your family, visit your parents, and have a normal life (Moran, 2012). This is why ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Failure and Error analysis - Term Paper Example Lastly, acknowledged from the cases is the fact that what leads to failure are leadership, material, tools, and environment and should all be looked into when designing a product in the engineering discipline (Delatte 1-12). Many factors contribute to human error in their daily operation, which include high pressure at work, complexities in technicality tasks, and the environmental disposition. By anticipating human factors principles and research based on a systematic collection of data, does aid in coming up with improved control systems, high quality of information, and enhanced human resource management, which all add up to human safety. The most common cause of errors from human operation according to Brosnan (2008) is the negligence attributed to incompetence, which I have felt in my actions. In addition, ignorance, having an oversight amidst greed contributes to failure (Brosnan 11). Disorganization of the leadership structure breaks communication channel and flow of information and leads to misuse, abuse, and neglect, which breaks down the smooth operation hence attracting failure. Types of errors that exist are the bounded, imperfect and reluctant rationality errors, which all are either indivi dual or collective error in engineering. Errors are also adverse or mild and require to be noted during design to avoid catastrophic accidents. 2000-commonwealth Avenue, 1971 is an engineering error that occurred, and I relate to it personally. The licensing of engineering work in any organization, institution and level of work is crucial (Delatte 1-3). The overseer bodies, which ensure that designs are well-elaborated and meet standards, require that the best practices be adhered. According to the Brosnan (2008) categorization, the issues here were unsafe acts and supervision (Brosnan 13). In addition, the individual errors committed become collective and led to the catastrophe as experienced. From the incidence, leadership, skills, and licensing
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Creation and Science - Essay Example For example, considering HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s The Phenomenology of Spirit we see that everything exists is reasonable in this world is reasonable, vice versa everything reasonable exists. And all this happens because there is some Absolute Spirit, which makes everything rationally matched. DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it look like the Intelligent Design Theory? The theory explains that Ã¢â¬Å"many features of the natural world, particularly biological structures, are too complex to be explained by naturalistic causes and, thus, can only be explained as products of an intelligent designer Ã¢â¬â i.e., GodÃ¢â¬ (Clark, et. al. 2007). The point is that this theory is some kind of combination of religion and science, a method of reconciliation of the two approaches to discovering creation of the world. Scientific development of 18-19th centuries showed that people started trying to avoid God as prime cause of the universe. Empiricists focused their attention on the method aimed to reveal all the mysteri es. In fact these methodological changes in research led to the great variety of theories, which denied GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. But even though they denied it, there still were a lot of phenomena scientists werenÃ¢â¬â¢t able to explain. DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s revolutionary theory of natural selection claims that human beings are just a result of evolution and struggle of certain species for existence, which caused creation of human race. It turns out that Darwin didnt need God to create the universe, and his theory is considered to be the most popular scientific theory of the origin of species, including humans. But when we talk about creation, we consider not only human beings and their origins; also we broaden our research trying to find the origins of every part of this universe, animated and inanimate nature. The most famous theory of creation is the one that was described in Genesis, the very first book of Bible. It is said in the narration that God made
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Drugstore Supply Channel of Bangladesh and Other Countries of the World Essay The pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh is at a matured stage with strong companies like Square, Beximco, Incepta etc. Drug stores have emerged in a good amount as well. Lazz Pharma once was the only good place to buy medicines which is not the current condition of the market. This is mostly because of the new technological additions to maintain an effective supply chain in the business. As the market got developed, competition rose as well. Hence, companies tried to adapt new technologies and advancement to hold a stronger position than their competitors. In addition, most of the intermediaries in the channel are owned by the companies. Therefore, the control is more on their side which helps them to maintain such good flow. However, the system is still unsuitable for further development as most of the supply is done by the manufacturers. It does not encourage the different levels in the supply chain to get enhanced than their current condition. Supply Channel of Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh As mentioned earlier in the introduction, most of the level of supply chain is owned by the manufacturers. Most of the pharmaceutical companies have their own distributors. Unlike the most, few companies like Novo Nordisk uses Transcom, the only distributing company in this sector, to deliver their product to the next level of supply chain. The figure 1 shows the supply channel of the industry. Each level of the channel is discussed below. Production: This is the level where the drugs are manufactured. At this level, drugs are kept open and ready to handover to the next level. Quarantined Warehouse: This is the level where product-quality is got checked. Also, to get the permission of market the product governmental approval is acquired here as well. After being tested here, taxes are paid and the products move to the next level. Central DPG Duty Paid Warehouse: After being tested the products are moved to Central DPG where they call it the Ã¢â¬Å"Finished GoodsÃ¢â¬ . Then the goods are moved to Duty Paid Warehouse. Deports: Deports are very important level in the channel. These deports are established in different places in the country to meet the demands of a specific region. Depending on the sales average of recent past and the reports from the medical representatives and sales representatives, these deport stock goods which can fulfill on an average 10 daysÃ¢â¬â¢ demand. Most of the big companies use SAP (System analysis and program development) software to make a database of the demands so that deports can store the goods accordingly. Medical/Sales Representative (MR SR): These are the agents, assigned by the manufacturing companies. They are responsible to gather information of demands for different drugs within a given area. They use devices that are connected with the main database. Through these devices they pass relevant information and invoices to regional deport. Till this level, the manufacturing companies own the intermediaries. Under the supervision of MR and SR, the goods are delivered through a pre-designed route to the different customers of these companies. Retail Drugstore: Retail drugstores are the most convenient places for the direct consumers of medicines. These retail shops get 2% discount on the medicines provided by the manufacturers. Wholesalers: Wholesalers take orders in bulk from the manufacturers and sell them to the retailers. The companies give 3% discount on the medicines for them. Potential Retailers: Big names of retail stores like Lazz Pharma get extra attention to the manufacturing companies. They also get 3% discount. Doctors: Many doctors have their own dispensary and they are one of the customers for the pharmaceutical companies. They get 3% discount as well. Hospital/Clinics: These places need more types of medicine than the others. For the medicines that need to be injected, they get up to 10% discount. Government/tender: These are special orders which happen occasionally. Delivery Company: The only distributing company in this sector at Bangladesh is Transcom which delivers drugs to different retail shops, hospitals etc after taking them from manufacturing company. International Distribution: Bangladeshi pharmaceutical companies export medicines mostly in Africa and the distribution is done by local distributing companies. Other Relevant Information: VAT(Value Added Tax) is added twice. The first time is done at the beginning of the production which 15%. After that 1. 5% VATable Amount is added. Finally, another 15% VAT is added on the trade price to retailers. Figure 1: The Supply Channel of Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh Recent Trends in the Drugstore Channels of Other Countries Unlike Bangladesh, other countries have more competitive market for having intense competition in the levels of marketing channels. Most of the countries have different distribution system than Bangladesh. Even our neighbor country India has a different channel system in this field. As mentioned in the journal of Kellar and Langer (2008), the supply channel of drugs in India looks like figure 2. Figure 2: Current distribution chain in India In such system, manufacturing companies assign CFA(clearing and forwarding agents) who clears and forwards the medicines to stockists who are independent intermediaries. Through the stokists the drugs go to the consumers. In India, retail pharmacy chain is also introduced which is still unknown to us in Bangladesh. According to Kellar and Langer (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"The first retail Pharmacy chain was started by the Subiksha Retail Services Pvt Ltd. The Medicine Shoppe, one of the largest retail drug stores in the US, opened two retail outlets in Mumbai and has franchised three more in Mumbai, Calcutta, and Baroda. Others have also entered the field including Health Glow, Pills Powders, and Reliance that US and EU, the expenditure on SCM alone is perhaps 2%, whereas in India it averages 4Ã¢â¬â6% of total sales. Also, this multi-layered system got more improved as India adopts IT in this sector. In the United States, the market is hugely developed. They have introduced new technologies and innovations long before us. They are introducing new techniques and packaging system as well to make the product more user-friendly to deliver it to the consumers. As the different levels of supply channel adapt new enhancement every day, the competition arises. In the writing of Gabler (2005), he mentioned about new packaging and delivery system that was brought up by Target Corp. and PrairieStone Pharmacy of USA. Target Corp. developed a new bottle called ClearRx, flat-paneled bottles that fit larger-print labels, color-coded rings to distinguish medicine between family members and user-friendly liquid dispensers for administering medicine to children. On the other hand, PrairieStone Pharmacy took a different approach. According to Gabler (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"With Daily Dose, PrairieStone will package customers medications in individual pouches according to the time of day and day of the week it needs to be taken. For example, each packet in the 30-day supply is labeled Morning, Afternoon or Evening with Dinner. For USA, most of the intermediaries are independent. Intermediaries are so well-developed, the independent pharmacies find it very difficult to sustain in the market. In the writing of Lehman (2008), she mentioned about declining number of independent pharmacies in USA. In addition she mentioned Miami-Luken Inc which began buying independent pharmacies to as their customer base was comprised entirely of privately owned drugstores. In the writing, Lehman (2008) also described, Ã¢â¬Å"Miami-Luken cannot compete with supply-chain drugstores, such as Walgreens and CVS, because it could not handle the product demands. So guaranteeing its customer base of independents became a top priority. Ã¢â¬ USA also found it very important to use technologies for record keeping. Medicines are very sophisticated things to consume. And when it comes to a patient who is suffering from a disease that needs extra attention, a wrong medication could put the person in grave danger. Robertson (2008) mentioned in her writing about such incident for which California law announced to apply a electronic record for medicines in the supply chain. At 2004 such decision was taken for which it was required to keep record of medicines electronically at every steps from manufacture to retail. Comparison of Bangladesh with Other Countries Bangladeshi industry in this particular sector is still using a supply channel that was once practiced in developed countries a long time ago. For not having multi-layered supply channel, the industry is not being able to provide more developed delivery. The adaption of technology is still not taken by all the pharmaceutical companies. To improve the competition as well as the quality of supply, the industry needs drugstore chain and independent intermediaries like Transcom so that the manufacturer can concentrate more on developing the drugs and others can worry about the distribution. In this way, every level of supply channel would become self-efficient and well-developed. Innovation on the other hand will start to come as well. The probable trend of drugstore channel in Bangladesh is yet to be foreseen. As there is no indication of change in the current system, one cannot expect multi-layered supply channel in the near future. Moreover, the system has just started to developed. To become something like the other developed countries, it will take at least another decade. Conclusion To conclude, I would want to make a few suggestions regarding the development of supply chain of pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh. This system needs to enhance with competition. The quality of drugs is good enough but the delivery system is not. Hence, more independent intermediaries should be encouraged to enter the market and thus make channel a competitive and developed one.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Abstract One Humean view holds that motivation requires beliefs and desires, which are separate and distinct mental states. Beliefs are disposed to fit the world, and desires are disposed to make the world fit them. This view is thought to eliminate besire theory, according to which moral judgments have both a world-mind direction of fit by representing the ethical facts of the matter, and a mind-world direction of fit by motivating action accordingly. Here I argue that besires are fully consistent with the Humean view. The Humean view should be cast at the level of types, while besire theory is supported by introspection on psychological tokens. Existent Humean arguments against besires do not go through, and besire theory remains a viable optionÃ¢â¬âindeed, the option best supported by the evidenceÃ¢â¬âwithout rejecting the Humean view. 1 A Case for Besires According to the Humean view of motivation, beliefs alone cannot motivate. According besire theory,1 some first person moral judgments (judgments of the form Ã¢â¬ËI morally ought to Ã ¦Ã¢â¬â¢) are both belief-like and desire-like in that they represent things as they morally are, and motivate appropriate actions. For example, on besire theory my judgment Ã¢â¬ËI ought to visit my grandmother in the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢ can both represent a factual moral obligation and motivate me to visit my grandmother without the help of some separate desire-type psychological state. Can besire theory be right? Not under the Humean view, for on that view besire theory mistakenly attributes motivationally hot, desire-like properties to a certain class of beliefs. It would seem that our options are highly constrained: either we embrace the Humean view, and characterize first person moral judgments as belie... ...o necessary connections between distinct mental state tokens, simpliciter internalism entails besire theory. 12 Shafer-Landau argues for a similar position, though he calls some beliefs Ã¢â¬Å"intrinsicallyÃ¢â¬ motivating. Shafer-Landau 2004, 147-48. 13 Only when we combine besire theory with an essentialist claim, for example, that no state counts as a besire unless it actually motivates, do we get the result that moral judgments necessarily motivate. This essentialist claim is too strong for any desire-type state, for even occurent, normal desires combined with relevant means-related beliefs can fail to realize their functional role. 14 One might think that the standard cognitive view of moral judgments evades the burden of showing how moral motivation fails, but thereby gains the burden of explaining the reliable connection between moral judgments and motivation.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Somalia 1993 Cause and Effect, U. S. Involvement, & Scale of the Conflict The Somali conflict was created by a succession of events. Back in 1991, President of Somalia, Mohammed Siad Barre, was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans called the United Somali Congress. Four main groups turned the country into a battlefield trying to gain control over the country. In the meantime a 5th group seceded from the northwest portion of Somalia calling it the Somaliland Republic, with its leader Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Ali as president.All the fighting in Somalia destroyed most of their crops creating mass starvation. The international community began to send food supplies to halt the starvation, but vast amounts of food were hijacked and brought to local clan leaders, who routinely exchanged it with other countries for weapons. This just led to more starvation and the international communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ efforts seemed ineffective. In March of 1993 the UNÃ¢â¬â¢s mission shifted and tried to hel p UNOSOM II gain power. UNOSOM II tried to reconcile the country and build a democratic state creating a secure environment.This organization was met with heavy opposition led by Mohammed Farrah Aidid and his faction. Several bombing occurred and soon war was inevitable. On October 3, 1993 the US led an operation intending to capture Aidid's foreign minister Omar Salad Elmi and his top political advisor, Mohamed Hassan Awale. This battle is commonly known as Black Hawk Down where two Black Hawk helicopters were shot down and many US lives were lost. That day was a true battle; 1500 somalian militia men were estimated to have been killed.On October 6, 1993 President Bill Clinton directed the Acting Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral David E. Jeremiah, to stop all actions by U. S. forces against Aidid except those required in self-defense. The White House stated that all U. S. troops would be completely out of Somalia by March 31, 1994. Impact of the Soviet Union Collapse During the Cold War, Somalia was used as a pawn by world superpowers, since whoever had control of Somalia had access to oil due to its location in Western Africa.After the Soviet Union collapsed, the U. S. had no interest in Somalia, resulting in U. S. support and foreign aid leaving the country. Somalia was left in a vulnerable state and was unable to create a stable political system. Somalia eventually collapsed due to a lack of infrastructure. Works Sited Ã¢â¬Å"Battle of Mogadishu (1993). Ã¢â¬ Ã Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Sept. 2012. Web. 16 Sept. 2012. ;http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Battle_of_Mogadishu_(1993);.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Five forces Model 1) Suppliers power 2) Buyers Bargaining Power 3) New Potential Entrants 4) Threat of Substitutes 5) Industry Competitors STRENGTHS 1) Suppliers power A segment is unattractive if the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers are able to raise prices or reduce quantity supplied Ss in apparels section have major brands like, Arrow, Levis, lee, Provogue, Pepe, loues Philip, Zodiac Weakness 2) Customer Buying Power The bargaining power of customer at SS can be a weakness if customer shift to substitutes.There are various other brands which could act as a substitute to SS for eg: Zodiac, Raymonds, Color plus, and Arvind Mills 3) Industry competitorsÃ competitors like Globus, Westside and Lifestyle, Wills Lifestyles, Rpg ,Pantaloon who catered to the same segment of customers, entered the market. 4) New potential entrants Preferred Partner for Foreign Players SS is the preferred partner/retailer for foreign brands entering India. The company has already signed an agreement with UK retailer Mothercare to retail their products. The company has tied-up Estee LauderÃ¢â¬â¢s MAC brand of cosmetics with one strongly performing outlet opened so far. SS has also tied up with Austin Reed for both manufacturing and retailing its brand in India. We expect many more opportunities for similar tie-ups, particularlyÃ as the government has allowed up to 51% FDI in single brand retailing. ShoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ Stop has 4 division the MenÃ¢â¬â¢s apparels, ladies apparels, kids wear and the Non-apparels. Following is their contribution to the turnover. * MenÃ¢â¬â¢s 43% of sales * WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s 18% of sales * Kids 8% of sales * Non-Apparels 31% of sales SS LOYALITY PROGRAMES SS PIONEERED INDIAÃ¢â¬â¢S first loyality programes They have 3 tier loyality programme 1) classic moments for entry level 2) silver edge 3) golden glow, members fall in different cateogory dependimng on theior spends with the company, they also receive reward points which they can redeem later on.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Predicting the 20 Most Populous Countries in 2050 In 2017,Ã the UN Population Division released a revision of itsÃ WorldÃ Population Prospects,Ã a regularly-issued report that analyzes world population changes and other world demographics, estimated out to 2100. The recent report revision noted that the world population increase has slowed a bit, and is expected to continue to slow, with an estimated 83 million people added to the world every year. Population Overall Grows The United Nations forecasts the global population to reach 9.8 billion in the year 2050, and growth is expected to continue until then, even assuming that the decline in fertility would increase. An aging population overall causes fertility to decline, as well as women in more developed countries not having the replacement rate of 2.1 children per woman. If the fertility rate of a country is lower than the replacement rate, population declines there. The world fertility rate was 2.5 as of 2015 but declining slowly. By 2050, the number of people over age 60 will more than double, as compared with 2017, and the number over 80 will triple. Life expectancy worldwide is projected to rise from 71 in 2017 to 77 by 2050.Ã Overall Continent and Country Changes by 2050 More than half of the forecast growth in world population will come in Africa, with an estimated rise in population of 2.2 billion. Asia is next. Asia is expected to add more than 750 million people between 2017 and 2050. Next are the Latin America and Caribbean region, then North America. Europe is the only region anticipated to have a lower population in 2050 as compared with 2017. India is expected to pass China in population in 2024, Chinas population is projected to stay stable and then to slowly fall, while Indias is rising. Nigerias population is growing the most quickly and is forecast to take over the United States number three position in world population around 2050. Fifty-one countries are projected to see a decline in population by 2050, and ten are estimated to drop by at least 15 percent, though many of them are not largely populated. The percentage per person is higher than in a country with a large population, such asÃ Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Ukraine, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (territory counted independently from the United States population). The least-developed countries grow more quickly than those with mature economies, but also send more people as immigrants to the more developed nations. What Goes Into the List Following is a list of the 20Ã most populous countries in the year 2050, presuming there are no significant boundary changes. Variables that go into the projections include trends in fertility and its rate of decline over the next decades, infant/child survival rates, numbers of adolescent mothers, AIDS/HIV, migration, and life expectancy.Ã Largest Populations by Country in 2050 India: 1,659,000,000Ã China: 1,364,000,000Nigeria: 411,000,000United States: 390,000,000Indonesia: 322,000,000Pakistan: 307,000,000Brazil: 233,000,000Bangladesh: 202,000,000Democratic Republic of the Congo: 197,000,000Ethiopia: 191,000,000Mexico: 164,000,000Egypt: 153,000,000Philippines: 151,000,000Ã Tanzania: 138,000,000Russia: 133,000,000Vietnam: 115,000,000Japan: 109,000,000Ã Uganda: 106,000,000Turkey: 96,000,000Kenya: 95,000,000Ã Source World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, June 21, 2017.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Definition and Examples of the Plain Style in English In rhetoric, the term plain style refers to speech or writing that is simple, direct, and straightforward. Also known as theÃ low style, the scientific style, the simple style, and the Senecan style. In contrast to the grand style, the plain style does not rely heavily on figurative language. The plain style is commonly associated with the matter-of-fact delivery of information, as in mostÃ technical writing. According to Richard Lanham, the three central values of the plain style are Clarity, Brevity, and Sincerity, the C-B-S theory of prose (Analyzing Prose, 2003). That said, literary critic Hugh Kenner has characterized plain prose, the plain style as the most disorienting form of discourse yet invented (The Politics of the Plain, 1985). Observations and Examples I am glad you think my style plain . I never, in any one page or paragraph, aimed at making it anything else, or giving it any other merit- and I wish people would leave off talking about its beauty. If it has any, it is only pardonable at being unintentional. The greatest possible merit of style is, of course, to make the words absolutely disappear into the thought.(Nathaniel Hawthorne, letter to an editor, 1851) The only way to write plainly, as a worker should, would be to write like [George] Orwell. But the plain style is a middle-class accomplishment, got by arduous and educated rhetorical effects.(Frank Kermode, History and Value. Oxford University Press, 1988)The plain style . . . is completely unadorned. It is straightforward and void of any figures of speech. It is the style of much contemporary newspaper prose. Cicero thought it was best suited for teaching, and indeed, the plain style is the idiom of the best schoolbooks of our age.(Kenneth Cmiel, Democratic Eloquence: The Fight Over Popular Speech in Nineteenth-Century America. University of California Press, 1990) The Power of the Plain Style In political language, plainness is powerful. Of the people, by the people, for the people. Ask not what your country can do for you. I have a dream. This is especially so for language designed to be heard, like speeches and debate exchanges, rather than read from a page. People absorb and retain information in smaller increments through the ear than through the eye. Thus the classic intonations of every major religion have the simple, repetitive cadence also found in the best political speeches. In the beginning. And it was good. Let us pray.Ã¢â¬ (James Fallows, Who Will Win? The Atlantic, October, 2016) Cicero on the Plain Style Just as some women are said to be handsomer when unadorned- this very lack of ornament becomes them- so the plain style gives pleasure when unembellished. . . . All noticeable ornament, pearls as it were, will be excluded; not even curling irons will be used. All cosmetics, artificial white and red, will be rejected. Only elegance and neatness will remain. The language will be pure Latin, plain and clear; propriety will always be the chief aim.(Cicero, De Oratore) The Rise of the Plain Style in English At the beginning of the 17th century, the Senecan plain style enjoyed a significant and widespread boost in prestige: this came from playwrights like [Ben] Jonson, low-church divines (who equated ornate persuasion with deceit), and, above all, scientists. Francis Bacon was particularly effective in associating Senecan plainness with the aims of empiricism and inductive method: the new science demanded a prose in which as few words as possible interfered with the presentation of object reality.(David Rosen, Power, Plain English, and the Rise of Modern Poetry, Yale University Press, 2006)The Royal Societys Prescription for a Plain StyleIt will suffice my present purpose to point out what has been done by the Royal Society towards the correcting of its excesses in Natural Philosophy . . ..They have, therefore, been most rigorous in putting in execution the only Remedy that can be found for this extravagance, and that has been a constant Resolution to reject all the amplifications, digre ssions, and swellings of style: to return back to the primitive purity, and shortness, when men delivered so many things almost in an equal number of words. They have exacted from all their members, a close, naked, natural way of speaking; positive expressions, clear senses, a native easiness; bringing all things as near the Mathematical plainness as they can: and preferring the language of Artizans, Countrymen, and Merchants, before that, of Wits, or Scholars.(Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society, 1667) Example of the Plain Style: Jonathan Swift [B]ecause it is idle to propose remedies before we are assured of the disease, or to be in fear till we are convinced of the danger, I shall first show in general that the nation is extremely corrupted in religion and morals; and then I will offer a short scheme for the reformation of both.As to the first, I know it is reckoned but a form of speech when divines complain of the wickedness of the age; however, I believe, upon a fair comparison with other times and countries, it would be found an undoubted truth.For, first, to deliver nothing but plain matter of fact, without exaggeration or satire, I suppose it will be granted that hardly one in a hundred among our people of quality or gentry appears to act by any principle of religion; that great numbers of them do entirely discard it, and are ready to own their disbelief of all revelation in ordinary discourse. Nor is the case much better among the vulgar, especially in great towns, where the profaneness and ignorance of handicraftsm en, small traders, servants, and the like, are to a degree very hard to be imagined greater. Then it is observed abroad that no race of mortals have so little sense of religion as the English soldiers; to confirm which, I have been often told by great officers of the army that in the whole compass of their acquaintance they could not recollect three of their profession who seemed to regard or believe one syllable of the gospel: and the same at least may be affirmed of the fleet. The consequences of all which upon the actions of men are equally manifest. They never go about as in former times to hide or palliate their vices, but expose them freely to view like any other common occurrences of life, without the least reproach from the world or themselves. . . .(Jonathan Swift, A Project for the Advancement of Religion and the Reformation of Manners, 1709) Example of the Plain Style: George Orwell Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step towards political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer.(George Orwell, Politics and the English Language, 1946) Hugh Kenner on the Disorienting Plain Style of Swift and Orwell Plain prose, the plain style, is the most disorienting form of discourse yet invented by man. Swift in the 18th century, George Orwell in the 20th are two of its very few masters. And both were political writers- theres a connection. . . .Plain style is a populist style and one that suited writers like Swift, Mencken, and Orwell. Homely diction is its hallmark, also one-two-three syntax, the show of candor and the artifice of seeming to be grounded outside language in what is called fact- the domain where a condemned man can be observed as he silently avoids a puddle [in Orwells A Hanging] and your prose will report the observation and no one will doubt it. Such prose simulates the words anyone who was there and awake might later have spoken spontaneously. On a written page, . . . the spontaneous can only be a contrivance. . . .The plain style feigns a candid observer. Such is its great advantage for persuading. From behind its mask of calm candor, the writer with political intention s can appeal, in seeming disinterest, to people whose pride is their no-nonsense connoisseurship of fact. And such is the trickiness of language that he may find he must deceive them to enlighten them. . . .What the masters of the plain style demonstrate is how futile is anyones hope of subduing humanity to an austere ideal. Straightness will prove crooked, the gain will be short-term, vision will be fabrication and simplicity an intricate contrivance. Likewise, no probity, no sincerity, can ever subdue the inner contradictions of speaking plainly.(Hugh Kenner, The Politics of the Plain. The New York Times, September 15, 1985)
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Occupational Health & Safety - Essay Example In this similar context, workplace stress is fundamentally described as the physiological and the physical effect that is experienced by a particular individual or people while engaging with any sort of employment (Erickson, 1996). In this paper, a detailed analysis of workplace stress relating to OHS will be discussed. A Brief Overview of Workplace Stress Workplace stress is regarded to be a major issue in the organizational context. This is for the reason that this particular factor can broadly affect the heath of an individual by causing severe stresses. Workplace stress can generally take place in any place of work of different organizations if there lay inconsistencies between workplace demands and the ability of an individual to perform deliberate acts in order to comply with those demands. It has been apparently observed that stressful workers often remain less productive and incompetent and most significantly motivated, which further restricts the organizations to accomplish their desired business targets. Moreover, the organizations are not able to attain greater success in this competitive market due to the presence of stressful workers within the workplace. Another major reason of creating workplace stress is the incapability of the business managers belonging to any particular organization to provide greater support to the employees and controlling and motivating them for the accomplishment of organizational goals. Moreover, workplace stress can also occur due to the reasons such as unpleasant tasks, ineffective control and unsuccessful participation in decision-making process (Leka, Griffiths, & Cox, 2003). Managing Workplace Stress Workplace stress is considered to be a critical determinant that affects the health and wellbeing of a particular individual at a significant level. After acquiring a brief idea about the different causes of generating workplace stress, it can broadly be stated that there are several ways by which stress or workplace st ress can be minimized to a greater extent. In general, normal stress can be managed by taking proper care of oneself through performing regular exercise, consuming healthy foods on a frequent basis and sleeping properly. Similarly, workplace stress can be managed through maintaining a balanced schedule, evading performing multiple tasks at a time and making effective plans of availing short-term breaks while conducting work activities (Cartwright & Cooper, 1997). Furthermore, workplace stress can be reduced by managing emotions in a constructive and positive way, meeting challenging situations and solving conflicting conditions through handling work pressures and staying focused on the activities that are needed to be performed. Furthermore, stress in the workplace might also be reduced through establishing and developing effective communication with every organizational member and preserving a healthy climate within the workplace (Help Guide, n.d.). Finally, it can be affirmed that workplace stress can be managed effectively with the application of a risk management approach. This approach can be measured by recognizing the hazards that are prevalent for causing detrimental effects to employees in the organizational context (Leka, Griffiths, & Cox, 2003). Workplace Stress in Relation to Occupational Health and Safety with Case Example With regard to determining the issue of workplace stress relating to OHS, it has been apparently observed that workplace
Friday, November 1, 2019
Community care - Essay Example 1. The presence of joint marital estate and of laws that determine its equal division after divorce changed the legal situation in the majority of countries. Now women become more financially secured, as they receive a part of property. 5. Most incomplete families are headed by women, and this kind of family is assigned legally. Unfortunately, the standard of living in such families remains law, as the women often do not obtain enough welfare to provide their families with all necessary things. 6. The duty of educating and bringing children up still lies upon women. About one third of children in most countries of the world lives in single parent family, with no male who could serve as the example and support for the children. 9. Increasing mobility, urbanization and the development of the means of transport enlarged the opportunities in communication between men and women. This provided women with the opportunity to judge her partner and part with him, if she finds it necessary. 10. Women now are conscious of their needs, emotions and desires, due to global changes in society. But their social and family duties remain the same, so their behaviour and social patterns are often defined by their duties, rather than their identity. 11. 11. The notion of the roles in the family and family itself, are changing rapidly, and this is the woman who is regarded as the protector if the historical and traditional significance of the family as the cell of society organism. (Erickson, 2005) For achievement of full equality between men and women it is necessary to change a traditional role, both men's, and women's in the family and the society. However, at all times and at all peoples education of children was the basic female care and the role of the man in this business consisted only in intimidation. For woman it is necessary to survive and save the family in the created situation. Today to such main women's cares as continuation of a human race" and the care of children is added such family care as participation in replenishment of the family budget and participation in distribution of family incomes. In order to cope with the care assigned to them by a usual economic and political situation without damage to health, an effort should be made not only by women but by all the society, and basically by the state. The widespread views of patriarchy on the woman's position create additional difficulties. Attitudes between spouses, parents and children are